Friday, 31 January 2014

Assignment 3: Evaluative Report

Part 1: Online Learning Journal

A separate tab for the Online Learning Journal (OLJ) was created on my blog: Informative Flights where readings and learning activities were documented throughout the session from 30 October 2013 to 26 January 2014. 

Part 2: Evaluative Report

During the semester many of the learning activities were interesting and eye-opening.  Prior to commencing INF506 I had considered myself to be reasonably experienced in social media personally and considered the library I was working in as similarly "with the times".  I must admit to easily being "wowed" by the newest and latest online tools and gadgets and had previously too easily adopted and (over)-used (Facebook) or dismissed tools (Twitter, Google+).

a) Evaluative Statement:

The three experiences that are highlighted are; Building academic library 2.0Web 2.0 tools in the library and Information Policy: identity, privacy and trust.

In Building the academic library 2.0 the talk of Farkas (2007) made me consider a number of points regarding Web 2.0 in the library.  One of the things I followed up on subsequently was the notion that students use their parents as a first port of call when they need to do research.  Since Farkas is speaking from a tertiary education viewpoint, this is probably even more applicable to secondary schools, which is the environment I work in.  Hoover-Dempsey et al (2005) concluded that schools both enhance and influence parental involvement.   Although the "themes of empowerment" they referred to did not mention the library or research, this is an area where positive reinforcement of involvement in a constructive way could occur, something which is echoed by DePlanty, Coulter-Kern and Duchane (2007) and Hay (2010) who suggest schools align parental participation with what matters to academic success using workshops, brochures and pamphlets and talks with parents. The library is ideally situated to do this, and in fact needs to if parents are expected to "help educators address the information literacy initiative" as Valenza (2003) highlights in her "Letter to Parents about the Internet"

Web 2.0 tools in the library allowed me to critically evaluate the Web 2.0 tools of ASU through the lens of the 4 C's : collaboration, conversation, community and content creation (Mishra, 2009).  Initially I was under the impression of how much they were doing, their consistency and the scope of the tools they were using (Youtube, Facebook, Blog, Twitter, chat etc.).   My conclusion was that they were putting a lot of time and effort into social media, but I wasn't sure of the pay-off.  There was not much two-way communication on any of the tools they were using and no evidence of collaboration, conversation or community.   An argument can be made that various social media channels were being used in order to reach the greatest number of users and that information and marketing was the objective, however Harpointer (2012) and Freud (2010) warn against engaging in social media without understanding the nature of social media and allow dialogue and user-generated content to occur.

The final posting I'd like to evaluate was Information Policy, and that coincided with a media furore about a social media posting here in Singapore.  Unravelling the incident under the rubrics of identity, privacy, security and trust, it became apparent that the concepts of privacy and trust were illusions in the world of social media.  Everything you post "can and will be used against you". In addition postings "live forever" even though one tries to delete them.  The concept of personal identity online versus in person is a very interesting one.   In essence the ideal would be to have congruence between the two identities, the problem comes when one is "a dog" (Pearson, 2009).  In person the less positive attributes are limited to a smaller audience than on social media and personal contact with your "friends" (Young, 2013).  In the workplace, an abrasive personality may be compensated for by limited customer interface or good performance in profitability - on the Internet these compensating factors are eliminated at the less positive aspects highlighted.  Although companies are encouraged to have social media policies governing their employees  (Lasica, n.d.), what employees do in their private capacity on "private" social media can impact organisations adversely.  For this reason Lauby (2009) argues, "employers need to be upfront with employees that they have no right to privacy with respect to social networking".  

Within the school sphere, studies such as Keipi and Oksanen (2012) point to the problems around anonymity and social identity which leads to less social accountability, particularly in the sphere of cyber bullying, aggression and harassment.  These are issues that schools would need to address in their policies, particularly with the movement to one-laptop-per-student and the increased use of smart-phones and other mobile devices. 

b) Reflective Statement

Looking back on the beginning of this semester, my use and experimentation of social media could probably be categorised as random.  As an early adopter of computers and the Internet, I’d grown tired of the “flavour of the month” in social media and was trying out new media without spending the necessary time to understand how to use it properly.  Enrolling in the course coincided with starting work with a very media-savvy librarian, who encouraged me to try out new tools and assisted in shortening the learning curve, which, together with the guidance and instruction offered in INF506 kept me stimulated and experimental. 

One of the most interesting aspects of the course was examining social media under an “academic” lens and thinking about matters such as identity or participation in online groups from a sociological or psychological viewpoint, or personal learning networks from a knowledge management perspective always reflecting back what it means for the library and information sciences (Burkhardt, 2009; Casey and Stephens, 2009) and the individual librarian (Utecht, 2008).
Looking back in my module notes, on numerous occasions I’ve scribbled “out of date” or “links no longer working” even though the resources were no more than three years old.  The core learning in such a rapidly evolving field is the ability to differentiate between concepts and ideas, and the materials or tools that they are embodied in at a moment in time (Standage, 2013 reviewed by Shariatmadari, 2013).
        My research project “Comparative analysis of social networking tools and technologies for International School Librarians in Asia” prompted me to evolve further as a social networker in my professional sphere.  Many librarians had responded on the benefits of Twitter and Google+, necessitating professional exploration into the ways in which these tools could be incorporated in my learning network through aggregators such as and Flipboard.  Becoming active in both these tools and curating material for librarians and students has been very satisfying as more people access and use these resources.  

However, despite these useful tools, there is still a frustration shared by the librarians canvassed in my research.  On the one hand there are graphically interesting, dynamic, current but ephemeral resources  (Twitter, Google+, Facebook, Paperli) which are constantly refreshed without reference to what is useful in an ongoing manner. On the other hand there are the static collaborative wikis (Wikispaces) which had their hey-day in professional networks around 2006,  but are suffering from neglect and time shortage on the part of their initiators.  There are attempts at social bookmaking using folksonomies (Vander Wal, 2007) with less graphically enticing but practical tools (Delicious, Diigo).  Forums and listservs as social media didn't receive a lot of attention in the course although these appear to be the dominant mode of interaction for many of the professionals surveyed. As a professional and as a researcher I have become more and more interested in knowledge management and how the world of the online social network can be carved out by organisations and individuals to meet their information and learning needs and this is something I would like to explore further.

The concepts of online identity are fascinating and manifold.  Reading around issues relating to identity, trust, privacy and security in social media made me re-examine both my use of social media and that of my family using various tools suggested in the modules.  Professionally the most important take-away for me has been the value of building up your online professional identity as a librarian using your own name as a "brand".

Practically I've learnt much which can be directly beneficial to my work, whether in terms of Website design (Lazaris, 2009; Mathews, 2009) or marketing (Brown, 2009) or how to approach teaching students about the use (and abuse) of Social Media (Valenza, 2009; Stephens, 2011; Lorenzo, 2007) and the creation of a social media policy (Dearnley and Feather, 2001; Lauby, 2009) and strategy (Kagan, 2010).

Finally, the best part of the course was to be afforded the time to systematically explore the world of online social media in all its aspects, to play around with the tools, using and keeping or discarding them according to their relevance or usefulness while still earning academic credit!

I'll end this reflection with the latest Facebook meme - the wonderful "Map of the Internet 1.0" created by Jay Jason Simons - a graphic glimpse of the state of the Internet world in 2014. 

Map of the Internet by Jay Jason Simons @

Brown, A. (2009). Developing an Effective Social Media Marketing Strategy. Retrieved January 19, 2014, from

Burkhardt, A. (2009, August 25). Four Reasons Libraries Should be on Social Media. Information Tyrannosaur. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from

Casey, M., & Stephens, M. (2009). You can’t afford not to do these things. Library Journal. Retrieved from

DePlanty, J., Coulter-Kern, R., & Duchane, K. A. (2007). Perceptions of Parent Involvement in Academic Achievement. Journal Of Educational Research, 100(6), 361–368.

Dearnley, J., & Feather, J. (2001). Information policy. In The wired world: An introduction to the theory and practice of the information society (pp. 60–93). London: Library Association. Retrieved from func=direct&doc_number=001664190&local_base=L25RESERVES

Farkas, M. (2007). Building Academic Library 2.0 [YouTube]. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from

Freud, A. (2010). Brand Success and Failures in Social Media [YouTube]. Retrieved January 19, 2014, from

Harpointer, T. (2012). 10 Killer Social Media Pitfalls Businesses Must Avoid. AIS Media. Retrieved January 19, 2014, from

Hay, L. (2010). Developing an Information Paradigm Approach to Build and Support the Home-School Nexus [online]. In Mal Lee & Glenn Finger (Eds.), Developing a Networked School Community: A Guide to Realising the Vision (pp. 143–158). Camberwell, Vic.: ACER Press. Retrieved from;dn=324432590971664;res=IELHSS

HooverDempsey, K. V., Walker, J. M. T., Sandler, H. M., Whetsel, D., Green, C. L., Wilkins, A. S., & Closson, K. (2005). Why Do Parents Become Involved? Research Findings and Implications. The Elementary School Journal, 106(2), 105–130. doi:10.1086/499194

Kagan, M. (2010, July 13). What is social media NOW? Slideshare. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from

Keipi, T., & Oksanen, A. (2012). Youth Online: Anonymity, peer interaction and linked subjectivity in Social Media (pp. 16–27). Presented at the To be Young! Youth and the Future, Turku, Finland. Retrieved from

Lasica, J. (n.d.). Best practices for developing a social media policy. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from

Lauby, S. (2009, April 27). Should Your Company Have a Social Media Policy? Retrieved January 30, 2014, from

Lazaris, L. (2009, November 27). Designing Websites for Kids: Trends and Best Practices. Smashing Magazine. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from

Lorenzo, G. (2007). Catalysts for Change: Information Fluency. Clarence Center, NY: Lorenzo Associates, Inc. Retrieved from

Mathews, B. (2009). Web design matters: ten essentials for any library site. Library Journal, 134(3), 24. Retrieved from

Mishra, G. (2009, May 11). Digital Activism: the 4Cs Social Media Framework. Global Voices Advocacy. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from

Pearson, J. (2009). Life as a Dog [online]. Meanjin, 68(2), 67–77.

Shariatmadari, D. (2013, October 11). Writing on the Wall: Social Media – The First 2000 Years by Tom Standage – book review. The Guardian. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from

Simons, J. J. (n.d.). Map of the Internet 1.0. deviantART. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from

Stephens, M. (2011, September 30). Exploring the impact of Learning 2.0. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from

Thomas, L. C. (2011). Google+ and the Commodification of Cool. Journal of Web Librarianship, 5(4), 322–326. doi:10.1080/19322909.2011.623535

Utecht, J. (2008, April 3). Stages of PLN adoption [Blog]. The Thinking Stick. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from

Valenza, J. (2003). A letter to parents about the Internet. Library Media Connection, 22(3), 30–31.

Valenza, J. (2009, September 27). 14 Ways K–12 Librarians Can Teach Social Media. Tech Learning. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from

Vander Wal, T. (2007, February 2). Folksonomy. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from

Young, K. (2013). Managing online identity and diverse social networks on Facebook. Webology, 10(2). Retrieved from

Sunday, 26 January 2014

Module 5: OLJ assignment - Social media Marketing Strategy

Read Brown, AL. (2009). Developing an Effective Social Media Marketing Strategy, in Salt Lake City Social Media Examiner (30 July), then 

Josh Bernoff & Charlene Li’s post Social Technographics: Conversationalists get onto the ladder (19 January, 2010). In particular explore the different behaviours of social networkers articulated in their ladder.
Consider applying market analysis to analyse your market's (client base) social technology behaviour.
Also view Bernoff's recent update on the statistics for their ladder 'The Global Social Takeover' (4 January, 2012)
Based on your understanding of your library or information agency's, and your exposure to concepts and strategies presented in this section of Module 4, outline (in 400 words) how you can apply these ideas to develop a draft marketing strategy for your organisation.


Brown (2009) itemised 7 points for an effective social media marketing strategy.  These included:
  • written plan
  • how much time
  • friend / following policy
  • target market
  • budget
  • which products / services
  • which sites used
On the other hand, Harpointer (2012) and Freud (2010) point out the pitfalls involved in engaging in social media, including when companies fail to plan adequately and don't understand the terrain of social media, fail to see it as part of a longer term strategy, don't engage people in dialogue but instead use it as a sales pitch or follow the wrong people.
Freud (2010) provides some interesting examples in the video below, and Carroll (2010) tells the story of United Airlines and his guitar as an example in the power of social media.  Bernoff (2012) has created a ladder categorising the differing (and  overlapping) behaviours of social networkers.

What does this all mean for a library trying to to develop a marketing strategy? Considering the library where I work, there are three key groups of users.  The teaching staff, the students and the parents.  Our product offering, the way in which we'd like to engage each group and therefore our marketing to each is subtly different.  Between the groups and within the groups there is also a difference in how social media is interpreted and used.  Further, each group needs a different type of "coaching" in the use of the library.

Since the school has grown rapidly in the last few years (500 to 1500 pupils and 50-150 teachers in 3 years), not all teachers are aware of what the library can offer them.  The one-on-one laptop program in the secondary school has enthusiastic supporters in the students and teachers, but meets with quite a bit of opposition and lack of understanding amongst the parent body.

The social media tools at our disposal are:
Twitter, blog, website, school newsletter (ebrief) google+, google sites, pinterest, LibGuides.

Needs analysis:
Teachers:  Libguides, book ordering, journals, teaching, coaching, use of technology and tools for self and in the classroom
Students: Books, libguides, journals, use of technology and tools, research skills
Parents: understanding learning and research process in digital age, books and resources, "on our side"

Who uses what?
Parents - predominently email & facebook - (we don't have a facebook presence) some linkedin, some twitter, pinterest
Students - moving away from facebook to snapchat and instagram, use a lot of skype chat, 
Teachers - most are very digitally literate - use most of the google tools, twitter, facebook, instagram, linkedin, pinterest etc.

We've started to put more information about the library in the school newsletter ebrief, and whenever we have something new, the librarian posts it on google+ to the teachers.  I'd like to see the bulk of our marketing efforts geared towards the parent body this year. 

Bernoff, J. (2012). The Global Social Takeover. Empowered. Retrieved January 19, 2014, from
Brown, A. (2009). Developing an Effective Social Media Marketing Strategy. Retrieved January 19, 2014, from
Carroll, D. (2010). Lessons from “United Breaks Guitars” [YouTube]. Retrieved January 19, 2014, from
Freud, A. (2010). Brand Success and Failures in Social Media [YouTube]. Retrieved January 19, 2014, from
Harpointer, T. (2012). 10 Killer Social Media Pitfalls Businesses Must Avoid. AIS Media. Retrieved January 19, 2014, from
Siddiqui, A. (2013). SEO depends on Social Media and just what are Social Media Signals! AGUA Entrepreneurial Solutions. Retrieved January 19, 2014, from

Saturday, 25 January 2014

Module 6: INFORMATION POLICY - Identity, privacy, security and trust

Explore some of these following readings regarding the issues of identity, privacy, security and trust:

De Rosa, C., Cantrell, J., Havens, A., Hawk, J. & Jenkins, L. (2007). Section 3: Privacy, Security    and Trust. In Sharing privacy and trust in our networked world: A report to the OCLC                membership. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC. [ebook]                                                        
Mallan, K. & Giardina, N. (2009). Wikidentities: Young people collaborating on virtual identities      in social network sites, First Monday, 14(6), 1 June. Available
Raynes-Goldie, K. (2010). Aliases, creeping, and wall cleaning: Understanding privacy in the age    of Facebook, First Monday, 15(1), 4 January.                                            
Pearson, J. (2009). Life as a dog: Personal identity and the internet. Meanjin, 68(2), 67-77.    
Davis, L. (2009). 8 tools to track your footprints on the Web, February 1. 

Based on your reading of three (3) of the above readings on issues related to online identity, privacy and/or trust. Think about online identity in relation to both individuals and organisations:
  • what is important in terms of how we present and manage those identities online?
  • what can we share and what should we retain as private to the online world?
Post a 350 word summary of important issues around online identity to your learning journal.


Reading Module 6 this week comes at a very interesting time as it coincides with some real-life learning about the power of social media in Singapore where I live.  

To briefly summarise the case, a British Expatriate Banker, Anton Casey, made inappropriate and offensive comments relating to Singaporeans, in particular, poor Singaporeans on Facebook and on YouTube. These comments got out to the press, went viral and resulted in thousands of comments, police reports being filed, death threats to Mr. Casey, and ultimately resulted in him losing his job and having to leave Singapore. [Disclaimer - I think what he said is deplorable and casts a shadow over all expatriates in Singapore, however this is an exercise in Social Media safety not ethics or morality and will be discussed as such].

I'll discuss each of the aspects of Identity, privacy, security and trust in turn, with reference to this case. However each of these are intimately related to the other, and none can be assumed.

Identity: Mr. Casey appears to be among the third of people who are "comfortable sharing their true personalities online as in person" (De Rosa, etal, 2007, p. 3-11) and based on hearsay had "the same personalities online and offline" (De Rosa, etal, 2007, p. 3-13). This is something that Pearson (2009) writes about, which can be summarised as "they know you're a dog" and "we know you're a dog".

Privacy: As the OCLC report states that most people think it is important to have control over their personal information, however, goes on to say "Respondents frequently do not take advantage of privacy controls that are available."  It took less than a day for the posts on what one would assume to be a private Facebook account to go viral.  And subsequent to that all other aspects of Mr. Casey's life were made public, his address and phone number, his email, name of employer, his supervisor, details of his wife and child, his car registration number, the school he attended. As Lim Swee Say states on Channel News Asia (CNA) in relation to another Facebook incident, "There is no such thing as a private space in the social media. In fact, social media is public. Therefore, it is important that whatever we say and express in the social media should be done knowing that it would become public." (CNA, 2012)

Security:  In his "apology", Mr. Casey mentions a security breach in Facebook, in reality it was more likely a breach of trust in his "friendship" circle. Rayes-Goldie (2010) touches on the concept of "social privacy" and how Facebook users both circumvent Facebook controls, and protect their own social privacy through the use of alias, deleting posts and "wall cleaning".  In this blog post, an educator gives "9 points to consider before posting on Social Media" - something that not only students, but everyone needs to think about.

There is also the question of Social media and the law.  In the UK at least, some posts in Social Media could land the person in jail. This brief infographic itemises a few incidences of this occurring with a brief summary of the law on "improper use of public electronic communications network"

Finally, the 8 tools of Davis (2009) were used, checking the footprint of "Anton Casey" and yielded the following results:
Blogpulse: - no longer exists
Boardtracker: new version "coming soon"
monitter: no longer works as Twitter changed its API
Socialmention: analysis seems rather poor as comments were deemed to be largely "neutral" 
Serph: no longer works
Spy: not a very graphically / link friendly site. 
Pipl: not only are his Facebook and Twitter account revealed (both disabled) but those of his friends as well.  And his friends (or ex-friends) seem to be equally careless about privacy as this screen shot shows (I blanked out the names in order to protect the privacy they're obviously not protecting themselves)

since these tools are 3-4 years old and , and Twitter were also checked: 2756 tweets in 7 days, search: there is a new hashtag: #antoncasey

Finally - here is a slightly frightening video on the "RIOT" technology for tracking people.

In this post, I've just touched on personal identity, privacy, security and trust. This incident in Singapore also had implications on the corporation where Mr. Casey was working, highlighting the need of companies to monitor not only their corporate online presence in social media, but also that of their employees, and to have appropriate policies in place.


Anton Casey loses job over derisive comments. (2014, January 25). Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved January 25, 2014, from
C, D. (2014, January 26). 9 Points to Consider Before Posting on Social Media. Edubabbling for the Masses. Retrieved January 29, 2014, from
Channel News Asia. (2012, October 9). NTUC Chief Lim Swee Say: Firing Amy Cheong Was One of the Most Difficult Decisions. Facebook. Retrieved January 25, 2014, from
De Rosa, C., Cantrell, J., Havens, A., Hawk, J., & Jenkins, L. (2007). Section 3: Privacy, Security and Trust. In In Sharing privacy and trust in our networked world: A report to the OCLC membership. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC. Retrieved from
OCLC. (2007). Sharing, privacy and trust in our networked world: a report to the OCLC membership. Dublin, Ohio, USA: OCLC.

Pearson, J. (n.d.). Life as a Dog [online]. Meanjin, 68(2), 67–77.

Raynes-Goldie, K. (2010). Aliases, creeping, and wall cleaning: Understanding privacy in the age of Facebook. First Monday, 15(1). Retrieved from

Rich Foreigner labels Singaporeans who take Public Transport as “Poor People.” (2014, January 20). The Real Singapore. Retrieved January 25, 2014, from
Tadeo, M. (2014, January 22). British expat banker Anton Casey causes uproar in Singapore after mocking “poor people” calling a taxi driver a “retard.” The Independent Business News. Retrieved January 25, 2014, from
Tan, J. (2014, January 25). Anton Casey leaves for Perth with family, hopes to return “when we feel safe.” Yahoo News Singapore. Retrieved January 25, 2014, from